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The organisms typically seen in thrush are Candida albicans and other species of Candida, which is why the condition is named oral candidiasis.

Though potentially serious, prescription antifungal agents can quickly eradicate a Candida infection. At very young ages, the immune system is yet to develop fully and there is no individual immune response to candida species,[9] an infants antibodies to the fungus are normally supplied by the mother's breast milk. Fussiness during feeding or when your infant is sucking on a pacifier (baby starts to suck, then turns away in pain) is another sign that it could be thrush. Having a poor immune system. Methylene blue oral is an antiseptic that is reported to help relieve oral candidiasis.

Additional symptoms of mono include: If you’re a mother who’s still breastfeeding, use a nursing pad to help prevent the infection from spreading to your clothing. Just click the plus sign (+) to view the image. Wash or boil all objects that the baby puts in his or her mouth, or run them through the dishwasher. An overgrowth of the fungus Candida is the cause of yeast infections. Many types of yeast and bacteria naturally live in the vagina and rarely cause problems. Only in specific circumstances (e. )

More persistent or severe cases may require treatment with oral antifungal drugs prescribed by your doctor.

Thrush usually starts to clear up in 4 to 5 days with treatment but use all the medicine (for at least 7 days). Conditions that weaken your immune system, such as leukemia and HIV, also increase the risk of developing oral thrush. In extensive oral candidiasis, endoscopy is performed to see the extent of the lesions into the gastrointestinal tract. The spots appear on the inside of the cheeks, on the tongue and on the palate. Breastfeed your baby if possible. Occasionally, a biopsy is needed to confirm a diagnosis of oral thrush. The spots may join together to form larger spots called plaques. While it's just a mild infection, thrush can be uncomfortable or even painful for your baby — and for you if you're breastfeeding and your little one passes the infection to you.

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis presents as a chronic pseudomembranous infection. Thrush in men, for skin infections, topical medications may need to be applied daily or a few times a day. Keep your nipples as dry as possible between feeds and, ideally, avoid breast pads. When your immune system is working properly, beneficial bacteria in your body help keep C. The role of thrush in the hospital and ventilated patients is not entirely clear, however, there is a theoretical risk of positive interaction of candida with topical bacteria. Candida albicans occurs naturally in the body in small quantities. Breastfeeding doesn't have to be interrupted if one or both of you have been diagnosed with thrush, but the condition can make feeding excruciating for you — another reason why prompt treatment for both of you is needed.

Though the fungal infection known as thrush shows up in baby's mouth, it probably started in your birth canal as a yeast infection, and that's where your baby picked it up as she made her way into the world. 7 Due to risk of choking, manufacturers recommend it is not used for babies under 4 months of age and used only with care from 4 to 6 months. With meds, the infection should take a week or so to clear up; check in with your doctor if it doesn't. Various essential oils are as effective as antifungals. That is, oral candidiasis is a mycosis (yeast/fungal infection) of Candida species on the mucous membranes of the mouth. Oral candidiasis is often known as thrush, because its white spots resemble the breast of the bird with the same name. Diet – malnutrition predisposes people to oral thrush; this could be caused by a poor diet or a disease that affects the absorption of nutrients.

This is not an indication of a security issue such as a virus or attack.

How Is The Diagnosis Of Oral Candidiasis Made?

Ask your doctor about safe use while breastfeeding. Only in those cases where the fungi spread, thrush can break out. In certain cases, a biopsy is necessary. A weakened immune system (by disease or drugs like prednisone) or the use of antibiotics that can alter the naturally occurring balance of microorganisms in the body can both be causes. If the areas become really red and angry, it might cause irritation – in this case, your child might be reluctant to feed or eat.

Prescribed antifungal medicines, which slow down the growth of yeast, are the standard treatment for thrush.

Symptoms of Oral Thrush

You can discuss this with your GP and health care team. The following are factors that can increase the risk of developing an oral thrush: Mohrbacher, N. Deficiencies are associated with higher rates of Candida infection, particularly in older adults. People who wear dentures – especially if they are not kept clean, do not fit properly, or are not taken out before going to sleep. Treatment usually lasts at least 7 days. Unchecked, it can grow onto the tonsils and down the throat, causing serious problems. The death rate from late stage disseminated Candidiasis may reach seventy percent.

Vaginal thrush is a common infection caused by a yeast called Candida albicans. Once the Candida fungus migrates past the gastrointestinal tract, it can become established in other major organs such as the lungs and kidneys. Women whose breasts are infected with candida may experience these signs and symptoms: Home remedies for oral thrush Your doctor might also recommend home remedies or lifestyle changes to help treat oral thrush or stop it from coming back.

Your healthcare provider may be able to diagnose thrush just from the appearance of the mouth sores (lesions). If using topical steroid for asthma, drink water and rinse mouth after inhalation. An oral thrush infection can also cause a pimply red rash in the nappy area. Germs called bacteria and fungi naturally grow in our bodies. In adults and older children, signs and symptoms of oral thrush may include: Infections that are resistant to those agents, or that have already disseminated, are treated with IV medications such as Amphotericin B, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole, and some oral antifungal agents such as Fluconazole (Diflucan).

If I have candida, what should I do?

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Oral thrush is a common condition, affecting around 1 in 20 babies. Oral thrush in babies: causes, symptoms and treatments, your healthcare provider may be able to diagnose thrush just from the appearance of the mouth sores (lesions). Replace your toothbrush after you finish your treatment for oral thrush, and properly clean your dentures if you wear them, in order to lower your risk of reinfection. For adults, it’s crucial to find the condition that causes the thrush. If your GP suspects thrush he will select an appropriate treatment option for you and your baby. Exposure to steroid inhalers or tablets:

Thrush often flares up and then goes away on its own. Men should apply the cream to the genital area, penis and under the foreskin, if uncircumcised. The mouth is one of the most common sites of Candida infections, which leads to oral thrush. If this balance is upset, the child may develop thrush. This causes deepening of the skin folds at the corners of the mouth (nasolabial crease), in effect creating intertriginous areas where another form of candidiasis, angular cheilitis, can develop. These lesions are generally raised and are often described to look like cottage cheese.

HuffPost is part of Verizon Media. In some people, a yeast infection, especially if it is severe and/or recurrent, may be an indication that the person has a depressed immune system. You can make the saltwater mixture with 1 tsp (5 g) of salt in 8 fl oz (240 mL) of warm water. Before your visit, write down questions you want answered. If this happens, you may have pain, trouble swallowing, or a feeling that food is stuck in your throat or chest.

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She might also drool. The incidence of all forms of candidiasis have increased in recent decades. Diabetes can contribute to oral thrush as well. This is to make sure that thrush is the root cause of your discomfort. Xerostomia is frequently listed as a cause of candidiasis,[3] but xerostomia can be subjective or objective, i. Your GP will usually be able to diagnose oral thrush simply by examining your mouth. It is important to treat thrush early to relieve the pain and trouble swallowing, and to prevent spread of infection.

The causative organism, the yeastlike fungus Candida albicans, is ubiquitous and needs only favourable conditions in the mouth and a weakened host to flourish.

You might notice soreness or cracked skin around the outside of your mouth — mainly at the corners where the upper and lower lips meet. Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure. Your healthcare provider may prescribe a medicine for your baby and a cream for your breasts. If you do have thrush, your healthcare provider may also check for this condition. Genital herpes (HSV-2) is an infection that’s spread through sexual contact. Sometimes a new type of bacteria gets into your mouth and disrupts the balance of the organisms already there, allowing Candida to overgrow.

Dentures require constant care.

Alternatively, the patient may be prescribed a topical oral suspension which is washed around the mouth and then swallowed. Itching of the nipples or burning pain are probably the most common symptoms of thrush of the nipple. Probiotics may help speed recovery and keep yeast at bay too, and they're safe to take while you're breastfeeding.

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Sudden onset of pain after a period of comfortable breastfeeding may suggest a thrush infection. Symptoms of oral thrush may not appear immediately in some cases. This can make it hard to swallow or feel like food is stuck in your throat.

While most germs are harmless, some can cause infection.

As it spreads, it can develop on the gums and the roof of the mouth as well. Similarly, if you wear dentures, make sure you disinfect them completely to keep them from harboring the infection. What does oral thrush look like? Inhaled corticosteroids used to treat asthma, such as beclometasone, budesonide, fluticasone. Cracking at the corners of your mouth Some people with thrush don’t have any symptoms.

For people with lowered immunity, such as from cancer treatment or HIV/AIDS, thrush can be more serious. These include Localized chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, diffuse mucocutaneous candidiasis (Candida granuloma), candidiasis–endocrinopathy syndrome and candidiasis thymoma syndrome. Saliva carries antibodies and other substances that keep yeast under control. It usually affects smokers and is pre- malignant. If you cannot be diagnosed just by your doctor looking into your mouth, they’ll certainly take a small sample and either examine the sample themselves or have it sent out for further testing. In oral candidiasis, the dentures may act as a reservoir of Candida species,[7] continually reinfecting the mucosa once antifungal medication is stopped. Don’t overuse antibiotics.

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Wash towels frequently at 60ºC. Eat unsweetened yogurt to restore healthy bacteria levels. Other symptoms in adults are: Conditions like diabetes and HIV can easily disturb the bacterial balance in your body, leading to oral thrush.

Occasionally, doctors will need a biopsy to confirm an oral thrush diagnosis. It is spread to the vagina from the anus via the perineum – the area between the anus and the vagina. Oral thrush, if left untreated, can also affect other areas of your mouth like the back of your throat, your tonsils, your gums and the roof of your mouth. They exploit micro-fissures and cracks in the surface of dentures to aid their retention.

5 milliliters) of salt in 1 cup (237 milliliters) of warm water.


And why does your mouth feel “funny” — maybe a little bit like sandpaper? Usually, a healthy immune system and some "good" bacteria control the amount of this fungus in the body. Thrush is caused by an overgrowth of yeast known as Candida Albicans. Or wash the items in warm, soapy water. And left untreated, oral thrush can spread further and lead to a serious infection affecting the blood, heart, brain, eyes, bones, or other parts of the body. To perform a biopsy, they will scrape off a small portion of a bump from your mouth. It may resemble cottage cheese or milk curds. Do not use mouthwashes or sprays.

Although most common among infants, thrush sometimes occurs in the elderly, immune-suppressed patients, or others in whom the normal balance of microorganisms in the mouth has been upset. Your healthcare provider will take your medical history. In healthy newborns and infants, thrush is usually not a serious problem and is easily treated and cured. Oral thrush is a fungal infection of the mouth.

It is usually divided into three types, depending on the appearance of the infection: If there are any white or red patches, your provider might scrape the affected area with a tongue depressor. Thrush may be associated with a burning sensation in the mouth or throat. Because of this, the American Academy of Family Physicians recommends that, for a first episode of a possible yeast infection, women see a physician to get a proper diagnosis. Candida may arise suddenly as an acute infection or persist for long periods as a chronic infection. Breast pain alone is less likely to indicate a thrush infection.

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Use them only if you really need them. Since antibiotics can trigger a yeast infection, they should be used only when needed — and that goes for both you and baby. When mixed with water, they’re ideal for swishing around your mouth to reduce symptoms. Yeast infections are more common after menopause. This yeast can multiply faster when there are fewer commensal bacteria to fight against illness, which is why they’re linked with more frequent oral thrush.

They usually show up on the tongue and inner cheeks, and may spread out to the roof of your mouth, gums, tonsils, or even the back of your throat. An oily ointment is best avoided as it may need removing with warm water and mild soap. For another perspective on curing candida in the mouth, read this guest post by Amie Valpone, who shares her advice and experience with candida. If your baby uses a pacifier, buy several extras that can be sterilized between uses.

What Exams or Tests Do Doctors Use to Diagnose a Yeast Infection Skin Rash?

Once these normal bacteria are gone, Candida fungi are free to multiply and grow without competition. If it is thrush, your provider will likely order an antifungal rinse. The white spots that appear with thrush cannot be flushed away like left over milk.

The condition can affect both women and men. In addition to looking in your mouth, your doctor will ask you questions about your medical history. To give the medicine:

If your baby has oral thrush and you are breastfeeding, speak to your GP. To limit your risk of oral thrush: Eat a nutritious diet and practice an overall healthy lifestyle to support the functioning of your immune system. Your GP will prescribe an antifungal cream if there is a rash in the nappy area. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

The important thing to remember is that you can fight back and regain good oral health!

Find A Fact Sheet

Oral thrush can cause discomfort but is not usually a serious condition. Dissolve ½ teaspoon of salt in warm, not hot, water and rinse thoroughly several times a day. The creams are available from pharmacies and can be used to treat an isolated episode of thrush – that's one that occurs more than a year since the previous episode – see below for treatment of recurrent thrush. Smear a small amount of gel on to the affected areas, with a clean finger, four times a day. Thrush is most commonly treated with medicines that are either applied directly to the affected area (topical) or swallowed (oral).

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If your immune system is weakened, you’re more likely to develop complications from thrush. Canesoral and Diflucan – these are both brands of a medicine called fluconazole. Use a spacer when taking inhaled corticosteroids , and rinse your mouth after inhaling the dose. Compiled using information from the following sources: Your sex partners may need treatment at the same time to stop you getting it again. This toothpaste helps maintain a dentist-clean feeling with advanced-cleaning silica similar to what dentists use.

In essence, atrophic candidiasis appears like pseudomembranous candidiasis without the superficial desquamating layer.

For example, if you are taking medicines that suppress your immune system, if you have certain cancers, or if you have HIV/AIDS. There’s nothing you can do to prevent a baby from encountering yeast in the birth canal — unless you have a C-section, she’s got to come through it on her way to meet you. They dread feeds, even though they want to nurse their babies, and have real worries about how they will continue breastfeeding. This can cause nipple thrush in mothers. Be sure to treat dry mouth if you suffer from it to prevent a host of dental woes, including oral thrush. Thrush, also called Oral Candidiasis, Mycotic Stomatitis, or White Mouth, fungus infection characterized by raised white patches on the tongue that resemble milk curds. This helps to prevent the medicine from being washed out of your mouth too soon. People with dry mouth have less saliva and are prone to developing thrush.

Some people may also need ongoing preventive treatment with oral antifungal medicines.

Without them, your internal balance can begin to falter, encouraging Candida’s development. It may be possible to alter one or more of the situations mentioned above to help prevent further bouts of oral thrush. A healthy intestinal wall will allow only nutrients to enter bloodstream, but when it is damaged, larger molecules such as incompletely digested fats, proteins, and toxins may also slip through. Some people notice that their taste is affected. But a simple lab test of the sample can also often confirm it. These organisms like warmth and moisture and are normal inhabitants of the skin, mouth, gut and vagina. The first symptoms may be a bad taste in the mouth and decreased taste. What is oral thrush?, yeast infection of the nails. Diabetes – people with diabetes, especially if it is poorly controlled, are more likely to have oral thrush.

Some adults say they feel like they have cotton in their mouth.

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Denture-wearers may notice persistent redness or soreness under a denture. Candida albicans is a type of yeast (fungus) that is a common infection in the mouth. Thrush is a common yeast infection that can affect the mouth and skin in different parts of the body. Thrush can be diagnosed by examination of the affected area. These usually come in the form of gels or liquid that you apply directly inside your mouth (topical medication), although tablets or capsules are sometimes used.

Or boil feeding and pump equipment for 20 minutes and replace teats and dummies weekly.


Thrush can also develop if Mom's breast is not properly dried after feeding and yeast grows, causing an infection. The sample will then be sent to a laboratory to be tested for C. For example, you may need an HIV test to figure out if you have a condition you don't yet know about. Be sure to ask your healthcare provider if there is another medicine or treatment plan that would decrease your risk of getting thrush. Keep in mind that essential oils should only be used in the mouth for a short period of time, as they may kill good bacteria along with the bad.

If you are in one of the groups of people at increased risk (see above), you doctor (or dentist) will usually be on the look out for candida infection.

The easiest way to apply this is to pour the correct dose onto a measuring spoon and apply with a dropper or swab. Special investigations to detect the presence of candida species include oral swabs, oral rinse or oral smears. The mouth is a common site where Candida causes infection. Wearing dentures, especially upper dentures, or having conditions that cause dry mouth can increase the risk of oral thrush. Usually, this yeast grows only in small numbers and is harmless. Both common and not usually serious, thrush is a type of yeast infection that typically appears as white or yellow, irregularly shaped patches or sores that coat your baby's gums and tongue along with the sides and roof of the mouth. Breast thrush pain can vary. Most of these candidal infections are superficial and clear up easily with treatment.

The yeast thrives in warm, moist areas.


Dentures may therefore become covered in a biofilm,[18] and act as reservoirs of infection,[7] continually re-infecting the mucosa. Oral thrush: symptoms, causes and treatment, in complex cases, systemic treatments are offered through antifungal tablets and injections. As straightforward as it might seem, most doctors will discourage you from diagnosing and treating a yeast infection yourself. Very mild cases of thrush may clear up without medical treatment.

Pain persists throughout feeds as well as between them and generally occurs in both breasts even if it starts in one. You might also be prescribed amphotericin B, which is used frequently used for late-stage HIV infection and infections that have become resistant to more common antifungal medications. Some medicines work directly in the mouth, Nystatin (nie-STAT-in). To prevent thrush in newborns, a pregnant woman should be checked by her doctor whenever she develops any white, cheesy vaginal discharge.

It is not a substitute for professional medical care.

Next Steps

For mild cases of oral thrush, the usual treatment is nystatin (Nyamyc), which is a topical application that is in liquid drop form. It’s time to call your primary care provider. You may also be at increased risk if you smoke. If candidal leukoplakia is suspected, a biopsy may be indicated.

Wait 30 minutes before giving your child anything to eat or drink. • Be aware that symptoms may get worse as the thrush starts to die off, before you notice any improvement. The disease is very common during the first months following the birth. This more typically occurs if you develop thrush after taking antibiotics or steroids. How do i treat my baby's yeast infection? Problems with your immune system that affect the normal balance of yeast and bacteria in the body. An LLL Leader can help with this. There may also be sharp shooting pains in the breast during or after feeds.

Underlying immunosuppression may be medically manageable once it is identified, and this helps prevent recurrence of candidal infections. Oral thrush is not usually contagious. If the infant is unable to eat because of a sore mouth or throat, he or she may act fussy. However, because there is some evidence that Candida fungi eventually become resistant to these drugs, this preventive use is still controversial. Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis occurs in about 5% of newborn infants.

If your baby needs treatment, the GP can prescribe a liquid antifungal medication.

  • Follow the guidelines provided with the specific medication or ask your doctor or pharmacist for more detailed guidance.
  • The mouth and throat do not always have to be covered with white film.
  • Causes of oral thrush Tiny quantities of Candida fungus exist in various parts of our body, including the digestive system, skin, and mouth, causing virtually no problems to healthy individuals.
  • But the most common one is Candida albicans.
  • If your infant has thrush, it is likely the fungus is also on the baby’s pacifier and bottles, so they should be washed thoroughly and sanitized.
  • They can refer you for tests or see a specialist if needed.


Baking soda may also help kill the yeast that causes the fungal infection and maintain healthy pH levels in the mouth. The dye is applied by using a cotton swab to coat the Candida blotches. Acute erythematous candidiasis usually occurs on the dorsum of the tongue in persons taking long term corticosteroids or antibiotics, but occasionally it can occur after only a few days of using a topical antibiotic. How is thrush treated? Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Thrush is most commonly caused by the yeast Candida albicans.

[6] Candidiasis appears at the sites where the steroid has contacted the mucosa, typically the dorsum of the tongue (median rhomboid glossitis) and sometimes also on the palate.

In particular, diets low in iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid appear to affect infection rates. Somewhat less common is acute erythematosis candidosis – it develops mainly under antibiotic therapy or in HIV infection, often as a result of pseudomembranous candidosis. It will not hurt your child to swallow the medicine. Other oral conditions. Many mothers have found using diet, hygiene, supplements and alternative therapies alongside any medication can make a great deal of difference and help prevent thrush returning. Your breasts may need to be treated at the same time. People who are having treatments that reduce their immunity (eg transplant patients, some cancer patients, some asthmatic people who are taking higher-dose steroids).

If your breasts show any signs of infection, such as soreness or redness, call your doctor.

While thrush can resolve on its own, and certain over-the-counter options can help it along, it may need to be treated with antifungal prescription drugs. Thrush (candida) infection elsewhere in an infant, e. Oral thrush is an infection in the mouth caused by a yeast germ called Candida. Got a problem that’s on the tip of your tongue, prompting strange white spots, bizarre tastes, and cracked lips?

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This overgrowth is what leads to the symptoms of oral thrush. For example, a transient erythematous candidiasis that developed after antibiotic therapy usually resolves after antibiotics are stopped (but not always immediately),[15] and therefore carries an excellent prognosis—but candidiasis may occasionally be a sign of more sinister undiagnosed pathology, such as HIV/AIDS or leukemia. Without appropriate help and support, many mothers give up breastfeeding before they are ready. American express, the partner of someone who has a yeast infection does not automatically have to be treated unless symptoms appear. You may also notice pain while swallowing or have a cottony feeling in your mouth. A person can get thrush by spreading the yeast from their hands to their dentures. Dry mouth due to disease of the salivary glands or certain medications, e.

You should see your doctor if: Your baby might also develop oral thrush if he sucks on objects already infected with thrush, like nipples, teats or dummies. This gives the mucosa a chance to recover, while wearing a denture during sleep is often likened to sleeping in one's shoes. The skin and are also affected. If you have a weakened immune system, thrush may spread to your esophagus or other parts of your body. Contact your doctor if you have redness and pain in the nipples in spite of home treatment or if you have burning pain in the nipple area when you nurse. Your symptoms are getting worse or have not improved within 7 days of starting treatment.

Oral Thrush: What Is It?

If you have a simple case of thrush that hasn’t grown down your throat and isn’t interfering with your ability to eat, home treatment alone may be appropriate. Read more about taking care of your oral health. Most of these organisms do not cause any problems. You may develop an overgrowth of C. Normally, your immune system works to repel harmful viruses or bacteria, but a weakened immune system makes this harder, which can allow the fungus that causes oral thrush to grow. If you have any questions, be sure to ask your doctor or nurse. Gentian violet can also stain the inside of the mouth, but this fades over time. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not imply endorsement and is not intended to replace advice from your healthcare professional.

What Are The Symptoms Of Oral Thrush?

Some doctors recommend that you look at your own vulva regularly to look for any changes. Yeasts are a type of fungus. But if your symptoms still don’t improve, or you have recurrent episodes of thrush, visit an ear, nose and throat specialist (otolaryngologist) to discuss the diagnosis and treatment. For babies, however, oral thrush is often very unpleasant, so that they do not want to drink any more. You may develop sore, cracked, red areas just outside your mouth. When the fungus spreads, infants sometimes develop fungal plaques on their lips or in the corners of their mouths.

Gentian violet is an older over-the-counter treatment that is safe and effective but doesn't require a prescription. “People who have conditions that affect the immune system are also more susceptible. What’s more, we’ll give you a range of natural solutions for getting rid of discomfort quickly. Oral candidiasis is sometimes presented in this manner as a symptom of a widely prevalent systemic candidiasis, candida hypersensitivity syndrome, yeast allergy, or gastrointestinal candida overgrowth, which are medically unrecognized conditions. How is thrush tested and treated? If symptoms develop, they may include the following.

Traditionally, oral candidiasis is classified using the Lehner system, originally described in the 1960s, into acute and chronic forms (see table). Oral thrush in adults Oral thrush is most common in babies and older adults, who tend to have weaker immune systems. Other common sites for thrush to develop are the vagina, nappy area, and nail folds. How thrush spreads The yeast that causes thrush can pass from one person to another in different ways. Brush your teeth with a soft toothbrush to avoid scraping the bumps caused by thrush.