The Inflammation of the Penis Head, or Balanitis

Comments are accepted in any format that is convenient to the reviewer, although an electronic format is encouraged. Yeast infection skin rash pictures, symptoms, treatment & causes. A test to check for diabetes if this is suspected. The prevalence of penile inflammatory conditions greatly exceeds the incidence of adverse events associated with circumcision procedures of 0. Comments received after the deadline will be considered, but they may not be acted upon before the clinical topic is issued onto the website. 2% and 20% vs. Diagnostic testing Culture is the usual definitive means of establishing the cause of balanitis; the cut-off being >10 colonies (OR = 9. )

  • They include balanitis (inflammation of the glans penis), posthitis (inflammation of the foreskin) and balanoposthitis (inflammation of both the glans and foreskin) [2].
  • Dry the head of the penis gently before you put on underpants.
  • It is more commonly seen in boys and men who are not circumcised.
  • Clotrimazole, miconazole, and various topical preparations for preventing and treating fungal infections are available for purchase online.
  • Meta-analysis of the association between circumcision and penile inflammation [46].
  • To determine the cause of symptoms men should always be tested.
  • Yeast infections in men are common because the fungus that causes yeast infections (candida) is usually present on the body and skin.

None of these symptoms is specific for VVC. Every effort has been taken to ensure that the information in this pamphlet is correct at the time of printing. The most common cause is improper hygiene, which in combination with a narrow foreskin, does not allow the revelation of the glans and removal of smegma (cheesy sebaceous matter collecting between the glans penis and foreskin). These overgrowths of yeast like Candida albicans can affect men, as well as women. Conventional antimycotic therapies are not as effective against these nonalbicans species as against C. Yeast infections frequently occur in men, even though they're most common in women. Oncogenic HPV was seen in 23% of 92 Italian men with lichen sclerosus (mean age 68 years) compared to 15% of men without lichen sclerosus (mean age 57 years), suggesting that lichen sclerosus leads to slower clearance of HPV [102]. You can use a moisturising cream or ointment (an emollient) to clean instead of soap.

Treatment will depend on whether there is an associated skin or systemic disease. In boys the incidence of balanitis was reported as being twice as high in those who were not circumcised [30], [31], [32], [33]. Possible complications of balanitis depend on the underlying cause and may include: Treating the underlying cause often clears up symptoms. Hormonal changes from your period, pregnancy or high blood sugar can also add to your risk. In all, 22% required extensive plastic surgery of the penis, including buccal mucosa grafts, demonstrating a more severe and morbid clinical course. Porphyrmonas was higher in uncircumcised men (6. )

Nodules usually regress through voice therapy with a speech and language therapist in the majority of cases. It is characterised by swelling and redness on the skin and it may be accompanied by a smelly discharge. After urinating, dry the area under the foreskin so urine doesn’t become trapped under the foreskin. A partner with a fungal infection does not always transmit it. Call your child's healthcare provider right away if: Good hygiene practices can help prevent it. Principles of the consultation process The process is inclusive and any individual may participate.


About one in 25 boys and about one in 30 uncircumcised men are affected with balanitis at some time in their lives. It's worth getting these symptoms checked out. It can also lead to serious complications if the infection spreads into your bloodstream. A When we speak, air from our lungs travels up through the trachea (windpipe) and into the larynx (voice-box), which houses our vocal cords. Bacteria can also cause the infection. If you get recurrent yeast infections and you can rule out causes such as hygiene and sexual contact, talk with your doctor about other possible causes. Deterrence/prevention of balanitis includes the following measures: —Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 26th Edition, 1995.

Microorganisms under the foreskin have the potential to cause penile inflammatory conditions. Lichen sclerosus is presumed to be of autoimmune origin, exacerbated by the warm and moist local environment under the foreskin [66]. Definition of thrush, the yeast can spread from person to person, but someone who comes into contact with thrush won’t automatically develop the infection. Your partner should be treated regardless of whether or not the infection was spread from them to you. Vocal misuse/abuse is a common cause for nodules, eg prolonged loud talking or shouting, singing inappropriately or speaking with an unnatural pitch.

More serious, or longer-term infections may require a prescription-strength medication.

Evidence Exclusion Criteria

Smegma is a cheesy-like substance which forms under the foreskin if the end of the penis (the glans) under the foreskin is not cleaned. The foreskin (the loose flap of skin that covers the head of the penis) is also often affected. How can I prevent thrush from occurring? Teach boys appropriate hygiene, especially if they are uncircumcised. If your infection is treated early and responds well to antifungal medication, it can clear up within a week. You might need to see a doctor who specializes in urology (urologist) or skin conditions (dermatologist). Is it painful? The irritant should be avoided.

7 Women’s Health Conditions That Affect Men

Referral for consideration for circumcision may be necessary once the inflammation has settled. Thrush is a common problem and particularly for people with diabetes. Gut a problem with candida? all the info you need here. If infection is sexually transmitted, sexual partners should be notified and treated.

Your doctor will examine your genitals and review your symptoms.

Is Thrush A Common Problem?

The pyrosequencing data are roughly consistent with somewhat more limited data from studies that employed conventional clinical microbiology. Typical symptoms of Zoon balanitis include erythrema (in 100%), swelling (in 91%), discharge (in 73%), dysuria (in 13%), bleeding (in 2%) and ulceration (in 1%) [33]. It may also pass on germs from the stool.

The water should be deep enough to cover the penis. A Brazilian study of men presenting for prostate cancer screening found balanoposthitis in 12% [50]. 4% in infancy and 1. A study in Liverpool, UK, of 300 boys circumcised after a clinical diagnosis of lichen sclerosus, lichen sclerosus was confirmed by histology in 80% (mean age 9 years; range 4–16 years) and 1 in 5 required subsequent meatal dilatation or meatotomy for meatal pathology [109]. Shaft and perianal involvement is rare. Reactive arthritis with keratoderma blennorrhagica of the feet.

If you buy something through a link on this page, we may earn a small commission. Looks like fungus and several bumps, may even turn red on the foreskin sometimes. The approach to treatment of skin lesions is similar to that for psoriasis, particularly in cases in which the lesions are persistent. Vaginal yeast infections, this can help relieve your symptoms and causes fewer side effects than antifungal cream. In older patients, progressive lichen sclerosus or other inflammatory changes can lead to phimosis [98]. In uncircumcised men the foreskin is often involved as well (balanoposthitis) [2].

The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne

The area may itch. The latter may result in significant urinary retention accompanied by subsequent retrograde damage to the posterior urethra, bladder and kidneys [2]. Carbon dioxide laser vaporization of the lesions is likely to be more satisfactory. Although VVC is associated with increased HIV seroconversion in HIV-negative women and increased HIV cervicovaginal levels in women with HIV infection, the effect of treatment for VVC on HIV acquisition and transmission remains unknown. Men with a weakened immune system.

It can appear at any age. A minority of male sex partners have balanitis, characterized by erythematous areas on the glans of the penis in conjunction with pruritus or irritation. Male yeast infection causes and symptoms, the causes of these isolated types of yeast infections will mainly depend on your lifestyle and personal hygiene. Thanks for the picture! Candida is the same germ that causes vaginal thrush in women. Phimosis in older men is, moreover, associated with 44–85% of cases of penile cancer [71], [100]. Since lifetime prevalence of penile cancer is approximately 1 in 1,000 [6], [7], [104], it is clear that lichen sclerosus represents an important, potentially preventable, risk factor for penile cancer. Untreated balanitis can cause chronic (long-term) inflammation (redness and irritation). Balanitis is one of the most common, and is a natural infection under the foreskin, which is the most common reason for a red penis.

  • Practice healthy lifestyle and keep your immune system strong.
  • Circumcision of men reduces the risk of bacterial vaginosis in their female partners [25].
  • Ask your child’s healthcare provider how you should take the temperature.
  • Treatment in an Italian study of men of mean age 46 years included circumcision, meatotomy, navicularis uroplasty, extensive grafting procedures and perineal urethrostomy [63].
  • Typically, it is caused by suboptimal hygiene in uncircumcised men and arises from an overgrowth of one of a variety of organisms that live on the skin, mainly Candida albicans (which causes vaginal yeast infections in women).

Preventing Balanitis

You are more likely to develop a balanitis if you have a phimosis, as sweat, debris and urine may collect under the foreskin. Malassezia spp. Therapy involves eliminating the behaviours that caused the nodules. If you are an adult with a recurring problem and have a condition where the foreskin does not pull back (retract) over the glans (a phimosis), an option is to be circumcised to remove the foreskin. For example, the inflammation caused by candida often looks quite typical. Hygiene, in particular the regular cleaning of the glans, is generally considered sufficient to prevent infection and inflammation of the foreskin. However, if it does not go away, and if treatment does not remove the infection, it is important to see a doctor to rule out other possible problems, such as diabetes, which can make infection more likely.

A recent systematic review evaluated the global prevalence of lichen sclerosus in 13 studies. The etiology of balanoposthitis may involve many different causes: The inflammation occurs more frequently in boys below 4 years old and in uncircumcised men. There are several risk factors that increase a man's risk of getting a penile yeast infection, including:

Candida species are the most prevalent, being found in approximately one-third of cases. In contrast, complications were seen in 0. The most common ages for balanoposthitis to present in childhood are between 2 and 5 years [29], which contradicts claims of soiled diapers, etc. Without damaging the glans penis, dilate the foreskin using a clamp. Balanitis is especially common in uncircumcised boys with phimosis compared with those without phimosis: Not only do they lead to frequent medical consultations, if not treated, the consequences can include acquired phimosis and lichen sclerosis, the treatment of which is challenging. If you and your partner both have symptoms of a yeast infection, it's important that you both be treated to avoid reinfecting each other.

Sugar creates a breeding place for yeast to grow.


Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2020. A yeast infection may enter the bloodstream. 5% seen uncircumcised boys. They may coalesce into large plaques or generalized hyperkeratosis involving the entire plantar surface, or they may remain discrete, erythematous, hyperkeratotic papules a few millimeters in diameter. It could be something as simple as a run away script or learning how to better use E-utilities, http: Long-term inflammation can lead to scarring on the penis, which can cause the foreskin to become constricted. Balanitis is an inflammation that affects the head of the penis (glans penis). Superficial fungal infections.

Common diaper rash in infants and toddlers is most often a superficial infection caused by the same fungi as other yeast infections in moist parts of the body.

It may be impossible to pull the foreskin back. All men aged 20–45 with lichen sclerosus in one Indian report were circumcised in preference to use of steroid creams [107]. There is a form of balanitis, which is called non-specific, when no other cause is found. Steckelberg JM (expert opinion). A yeast infection is often thought of as a female health problem, but it can affect anyone, including men. 4 million males in the USA, including 93.

Another factor can be the isomorphic response [2]. How thrush is treated in the mouth, of course, different people react better to different medicines, so you may have to try more than one. You can get balanitis at any age. A study of Hungarian men circumcised for phimosis documented lichen sclerosus in 62% [97]. Key findings from a study in Rakai, Uganda using this technology found that uncircumcised men have greater microbial diversity on their coronary sulcus swabs prior to circumcision than 12 months after circumcision [10].


If the cause of your balanitis has been traced to the soap you use, eliminate the soap and just use water in your daily cleaning. It may include meatotomy or meatoplasty for meatal stenosis and urethroplasty for the urethra. If the glans penis is very inflamed a combined corticosteroid cream and antifungal agent (ie 1% clotrimazole) is better. Men with diabetes may experience more severe symptoms, including fluid buildup and ulceration of the penis, as well as fissuring of the foreskin.

How should I assess suspected balanitis?

So, one of the most common causes of a penile yeast infection is unprotected sexual intercourse with a woman who has a vaginal yeast infection. There is usually some predispository factor for the development of balanoposthitis, such as: Clinical accuracy. But, if there’s an imbalance in your system or you have had sex with infected partner, these yeasts can start to overgrow. Much of the data come from studies in the developing world as outlined below, with only limited data from other settings. For example, balanitis was reported in 11–13% of uncircumcised men, but in only 2% of circumcised men [32], [33]. For the genital lesions, conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis may include candidiasis, psoriasis, dermatitis, Bowen's disease, Paget's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, Zoon's balanitis, erosive lichen planus, lichen sclerosus (balanitis xerotica obliterans), aphthosis, fixed drug eruption, and certain infectious diseases.


Circinate balanitis (also known as balanitis circinata) is a serpiginous annular dermatitis associated with reactive arthritis. Use a cotton swab to gently clean any drainage. Local treatment with topical agents usually suffices to manage both conditions. Major reviews were used for presenting clinical background. The ability of a defensive cytokine response to limit the damage caused by candidalysin is compromised in patients with HIV-related diseases, diabetes and some cancers. If you have diabetes, work with your healthcare providers to make sure your blood sugar levels are well controlled.

As listed above, those people with weak immune responses can be particularly affected by yeast fungi, with men suffering from diabetes being at higher risk due to the levels of glucose associated with diabetes encouraging the fungus to breed. Yeast infections during pregnancy: causes, symptoms and treatment, folk remedies abound, but the only safe, reliable response to UTI is accurate diagnosis followed by treatment with a course of appropriate antibiotics or other medications prescribed by a provider. Most cases of balanitis are easily managed with a combination of creams or ointments, good hygiene and avoiding substances that irritate the penis. Fungi (exclusively C. )

  • The microorganisms include various bacterial species and yeasts.
  • 4 Other features include pinpoint purpuric spotting and yellow discharge.
  • Even more so when one considers that over their lifetime half of uncircumcised males will suffer a medical condition caused by the retention of the foreskin [113].
  • Mean time between diagnosis of lichen sclerosus and development of penile cancer is 12 years [71].
  • The patient noted episodic tenderness.
  • There are, however, other factors.

Can men get yeast infections? What are the signs and symptoms of a male yeast infection?

How it’s diagnosed “Balanoposthitis” isn’t really a diagnosis in and of itself. In contrast, steroid creams limit disease progression but do not cure many cases [72], [106]. One in 10 men who attend a sexual health or genito-urinary (GUM) clinic have balanitis. How do i use vinegar & water to treat canine yeast infection? In uncircumcised men, the appearance is more often that of erosion rather than crust because the moisture and trauma minimize the formation of crust.

Obtain a culture of discharge in complicated cases such as those with associated cellulitis, then treat empirically with appropriate antibiotics (typically first-generation cephalosporin).

Try not to use strong soap or lotions that can irritate your skin. Local genital risk factors include heavy Candida colonization, eczema, poor personal hygiene, water loss and dry skin, infections, chemical irritants, and obesity. Most adverse events were minor and easily treatable, leading to complete resolution.

In elderly men, lichen sclerosus with phimosis can also cause lower urinary tract symptoms [99].